Returning to its roots as a Direct E-mail List — as the most effective, efficient way to serve our subscribers, writers, advertisers, and readers — the DI will heretofore make all new content, as well as reprints from our 20-year archive of more than 2,000 exclusive reviews by 150 writers of performances on five continents, plus news, commentary, art, and the Jill Johnston Archive, available strictly by e-mail. To subscribe to the DI and access both this new content and archived stories, for just $29.95/year individuals or $49.95 institutions, just designate your PayPal payment in that amount to email@example.com, or write us at that address to find out about payment by check or in Euros. (In the latter case, the payments will be directed to our European correspondents.) You can also contact us at that address to find out about limited, well-integrated e-mail advertising options.
By Martha Graham
(As taken from public probate records)
(First published on the Dance Insider on January 18, 2001, as part of its comprehensive, unparalleled coverage of the Graham v. Graham legal saga pitting Ron Protas, Graham’s legal heir, against her company, school, and center. DI subscribers get full access to the complete coverage, plus our archive of 2,000 reviews of performances, news, and art from around the world by 150 leading dance critics dating back to 1998. To subscribe to the DI for just $29.95/year, just designate your PayPal payment in that amount to firstname.lastname@example.org, or write us at that address to find out about payment by check or in Euros. Martha Graham was born 124 years ago today.)
I, MARTHA GRAHAM, of the County, City and State of New York, make, publish, and declare this to be my last will and testament.
I hereby revoke all former wills and codicils thereto made by me at any time.
I appoint my friend, Ron Protas, to be executor thereof. If he shall not qualify or, having qualified, shall cease to act as executor hereof, I appoint my friend, Alex Racolin, to be executor hereof. I direct that no executor appointed herein shall be required to give bond or other security for the faithful performance of his duties in any jurisdiction.
All personal and household effects, and other tangible personal property, held for purposes of use or enjoyment as distinguished from business or investment purposes, which I now own or may hereafter acquire, if owned by me at the time of my death, I give and bequeath to my said friend, Ron Protas, if he shall survive me. I request, but do not enjoin, that he distribute certain of such items in accordance with my wishes which are known to him.
The residue, remaining after funeral and estate administration expenses and debts have been paid and after the foregoing provisions hereof have been satisfied, of all my property, real and personal, of every kind and description and wherever situated, including all property over which I may have power of appointment at the time of my death, all such powers being hereby expressly exercised, and including all property not otherwise effectively disposed of hereunder (said residue being hereinafter referred to as my “residuary estate”), I give, (unclear), and bequeath to my said friend, Ron Protas, if he shall survive me, or, if he shall not survive me, to the Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance, Inc.
In connection with any rights or interests in any dance works, musical scores, scenery sets, my personal papers, and the use of my name, which may pass to my said friend Ron Protas under this Article IV, I request, but do not enjoin, that he consult with my friends, Linda Hodes, Diane Gray, Halston, Ted Michaelson, Alex Racolin and Lee Traub, regarding the use of (unclear) rights or interests.
To provide for the execution of the provisions of the will, the administration of my estate and related matters:
(A) I give to my executor, in affirma[tion] and extension of the authority and power given to executors by law, the authority and power (1) to retain and hold my property, real and personal, or any part or parts thereof, in the form in which the same may be invested at the time of my death, and to sell the same at public or private sale, with or without notice, for cash or credit or upon such terms and conditions as my executor may deem wise, and in like manner to convey, exchange, lease, mortgage, pledge or otherwise encumber the same; (2) to invest funds and change investments without regard to whether such investments or reinvestments are of the character prescribed or authorized by law for the investment of trust funds; (3) to exercise or assert in person or by proxy all rights, privileges and powers accruing upon, appurtenant to, or available in connection with securities included in my estate; and (4) to execute all such instruments and to perform all such acts as shall be incidental to or necessary or expedient in connection with the foregoing authority and power or the proper execution of the provisions of this will or the proper administration of my estate, all the authority and power given herein to be exercised for such purposes as in the discretion of my executor maybe deemed proper without the authorization or confirmation of any court.
(B) I direct (1) that the term “executor,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean the executor or alternate executor appointed herein, whichever shall be acting; (2) that a person shall be deemed not to have survived me as such term is used herein where such person dies simultaneously with me or dies under such circumstances that in the judgment of my executor it cannot be determined with certainty whether such person survived me or it would be impracticable to attempt to do so; and (3) that my executor shall pay my death taxes without apportionment, as if they were expenses of administering my estate, out of property which, otherwise would be included in my residuary estate; and the term “death taxes,” as used herein, shall be understood to mean all inheritance, transfer, succession and estate taxes levied by reason of my death, regardless of whether such taxes are levied on property passing or not passing under this will, and to include all interest and penalties on such taxes.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and seal at New York, this (handwriting unclear) day of (handwriting unclear), 1989.
(The will is signed here, in handwriting, “Martha Graham.”)
The foregoing instrument was subscribed by the above-named MARTHA GRAHAM, on the day and year first above written, (unclear) our presence and was at the same time published and declared (unclear) her in the presence of each of us to be her last will and testament, and thereupon we, at her request, and in her presence and in the presence of each other, did subscribe our names as attesting witnesses.
(The will is signed, here, in handwriting, with three names, the only one of which is legible in the copy provided to the DI by the Martha Graham Center is that of Linda Hodes.)
Left: Pearl Lang in Martha Graham’s “Diversion of Angels,” original costume, 1948. Photo by Chris Alexander. Right: Pearl Lang in Martha Graham’s “Appalachian Spring.” Photos courtesy Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance.
By Pearl Lang
Copyright 1991, 2002, and 2017 Marian Horosko
(Excerpted from Marian Horosko’s “Martha Graham: The Evolution of Her Dance Theory and Training,” revised edition, University of Florida Press, 2002. Our dear colleague, editor, writer, scholar, teacher, and veteran New York City Ballet and Metropolitan Opera Ballet dancer Marian Horosko died on September 11 in the Bronx at the age of 92. As hard to believe as it was that she was already 70 when I first met her in the offices of Dance magazine — where she was education editor mais pas que — energetically bicycling on a stationary device, only pausing long enough to give a young editor a necessary correction. Marian represented that rare combination among journalists: A skeptic and a true believer. Marian’s other books include the 2005 biography, “May O’Donnell: Modern Dance Pioneer.” Special thanks to DL for the alert. First published on the DI, with the author’s permission, on March 10, 2009, on the occasion of the death of pioneering Martha Graham dancer, teacher, and choreographer Pearl Lang. Today’s publication sponsored by Freespace Dance and Slippery Rock University Dance. DI subscribers get full access to the DI’s Martha Graham Archives with more news, reviews, and commentary. To subscribe for one year, just designate your PayPal payment of $29.95 to email@example.com or write us at that address to learn how to pay by check.– PB-I)
My mother was a great admirer of Isadora Duncan, and there were photos of her and her various companies in Russia and Germany on our walls. I come from Chicago, and she took me to see Harald Kreutzberg, as well as all the dance companies that played there. I especially remember a performance, when I must have been four years old, of “Hansel and Gretel,” the opera. In this production, when the children went to sleep at night, the angels came down a ladder from the sky two at a time. As they stepped down, each step lighted up and I thought that was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen. I went right home, got my girlfriends together and did my first choreography, walking them downstairs with lights at every step!
I had lessons with a Duncan teacher and later, ballet lessons in Chicago. And when I was about 16 years old, I saw a Northwestern University series of American modern dancers that included Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Hanya Holm, and Charles Weidman. I took all their master classes and was invited by Martha and Humphrey to come to New York. I arrived when I was 19 years old.
The traditional Graham class begins with the bounces, but in the last years, in watching the company’s performances, the contraction is just not as apparent as I used to see it and the way we danced it. The contraction is Martha’s great gift to dance. I begin the class with it, along with some of the things that are usually done later in the class. The contraction is the most basic use of the center of the body. There is always a stretch before a contraction, which engages the interior muscles and reacts as in a cough, a sob, or a laugh — all violent physical reactions. In order for the contraction to be visual, you have to have a smooth plane before it can happen. I try to make my students aware of the contrast in these movements. I point out that before a contraction is visible, there has to be a stretch in the other direction to make it happen. Aesthetically, too, it pleases me more to see them sit down and do contractions rather than begin with bounces. Somehow, I don’t think Martha would have minded my changing the order.
Nothing in the system begins in the extremities. All the movements begin in the center of the body and move out. There is an overtone here from Duncan. In her book “My Life” (1928) she wrote that movement begins in the solar plexus, the diaphragm. When Martha devised her system, Duncan training was still around. Martha made a technique of the concept of a contraction beginning in the abdominals, while with Duncan it was a style, a quality of movement. Martha worked at a time when even painters were picturing the body in a cubist style. Picasso painted the body broken up into various planes, and choreographers of the time were emulating that kind of vision.
Martha saw Duncan dance in New York at Carnegie Hall and was enamored with her and absolutely ecstatic when she saw her dance. She wrote in her notebooks that she could hardly breathe during Duncan’s performance and that her own hair, combed into two buns, had become completely undone at the end of the performance. Ruth St. Denis and Duncan were dancing at the same time — two famous and unique dancers who influenced Martha. She never talked about Mary Wigman and probably never saw her dance.
Her early background in the Denishawn company provided her technique with a strong influence in ethnic dance since their repertoire was built upon ethnic dances. St. Denis was famous for her “Nautch Dance,” which bore little resemblance to the original, but ethnic dances were all very fashionable in those days.
I find that students lose sight of a movement phrase, especially at its beginning. Just as you write a sentence with a capital letter, the beginning of a dance has to have some authority to tell us what is going to happen, and it has to have an end. If it doesn’t have that finality, we don’t remember it. I try to convey that when I teach. There are those students who are naturally going to dance and need some technique, and you have those who study technique, technique, technique and nothing more than that ever happens.
I have been saying for years that, in addition to classes in ballet for all the students, male dancers, especially those studying Graham’s technique, should be required to study flamenco dance because Martha’s posture for men was macho.
Martha listened a great deal to Joseph Campbell [company member Jean Erdman’s husband and author of “Man and Myth”]. Martha was a Jungian [Swiss psychiatrist C.G. Jung (1875 – 1961) founded analytical psychology]. A lot of Jung’s psychiatry was built upon universal archetypes. The behavior of people interested Martha, so when Campbell made parallels to something in Hopi Indians and East Indian mythology, for instance, she absorbed those similarities. She didn’t want to be specific in her characterizations as much as she wanted them to resonate in other cultures.
For instance, Martha was fascinated with the beautiful Southwest, which was an artist colony in the 1930s and where Georgia O’Keeffe went to live and paint. There, the cross-culture of American Indians and Hispanic Catholics influenced her early work “Primitive Mysteries” (1931).
We are, after all, training dancers for the stage, and they have to have life in them. It can’t just be steps and technique. I see so many young choreographers walk to the front of the stage, look out to the audience, and seem to say, “I’m unhappy and it’s all your fault.” Every company director and teacher has the responsibility to develop the possibilities of a dancer. You have to know what those possibilities are and bring them out of each one. After every class I think about what the students will need in the next class. It takes the director or teacher and the student together to make this happen.
Every class is a prayer. Some of the movements are pious; there is a spirituality in dance. Martha claimed the studio was her church, just as the Asians bless the floor on which they perform. There are so many influences in our society that the student has to ignore — the vulgarity on the screen, on television, and even on stage. If a character is vulgar, then you have to play it that way, but when it becomes pervasive in a society, it makes you wonder how you can teach the subtleties, the refinements, and the nuances and beauty within the movements. There is little or no frame of reference for them. And so little time.